Technology

Overview

En Gibton’s products are based on a novel proprietary technology for the adsorption of water contaminants by micelle-clay complexes.

The complexes have a very large surface area per weight, contain large hydrophobic parts, and have an excess of positive charge.

They are very well suited for the adsorption of anionic organic molecules such as herbicides, humic acid, dissolved organic matter, antibiotics, perchlorates, and ferric cyanide. They can remove chlorine-resistant microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites (e.g.. cryptosporidium and giardia).

En Gibton's technology is protected by patents in the United States, in Europe (United Kingdom), and in Israel.

The technology is approved for the purification of potable water by the Israeli Ministry of Health.

Advantages

En Gibton's technology has the following advantages as compared to state-of-the art purifications technologies:

  • High purification effectiveness
  • Wide range of adsorbed contaminants
  • Easy customization to specific applications
  • Low consumption of energy
  • Unaffected by salinity, acidity, alkalinity (pH 3-12), and high temperature (up to 60Co)
  • Low replacement frequency
  • Environment friendly, can be regenerated for repeated use

Laboratory Test Results

En Gibton has conducted extensive tests to validate its technology. Most of the tests were carried out in the laboratory at slow flow rates and with small amounts of filtration material. The Yashresh pilot plant verified the laboratory results at large commercial flow rates.

Some of the test results are presented below:

Removal of bacteria

50 liters of water contaminated with E. coli bacteria (3 millions per mL) were filtered through an experimental filter made of En Gibton granules mixed with sand. 100% purification was achieved. When a regenerated filter was used purification effectiveness decreased to 90%.

15 liters of water contaminated with fecal Streptococci (20,500 per mL) were filtered by an En Gibton filter and compared with an activated carbon filter. The En Gibton filter removed 100% of the bacteria, while active carbon removed 51%.  

Removal of parasites

1 liter of water was contaminated with 10,000 Cryptosporidium parvum parasites. 99.9% were removed by the En Gibton filtering.

Removal of agro-chemicals

Water contaminated with herbicides Bromacil (500 ppm) and Sulfentrazone (75 ppm) was filtered at a flow rate 20 mL/min and compared to active carbon filtration. The deterioration rate of both filters was also compared.

       Removal (%)
Pollutant Volume
(L)
Active Carbon
at 35°C
 EnGibton
at 35°C
 Active Carbon
at 50°C
 En Gibton
at 50°C
Bromacil 1 55.0 99.5 37.6 98.6
Sulfentrazone  1 32.2 99.7 0 99.5
5 7.8 100 0 90.4

 

Removal of antibiotics

Pollutant Initial concentration mg/L % Removal
Tetracycline 10 98
Oxytetracycline 10 98
Sulfisoxazole 8 97
Sulfamethizole 10 99.9
Sulfamethoxazole 10 98

Effectiveness for high concentrations of contaminants

The removal of E coli bacteria at high concentrations was evaluated by calculating the amount of contaminated water purified to below 1 bacterium per 100 mL of water by 1 kg of granules for varying initial concentrations of bacteria.

Capacity: number of cubic meters purified
to less than 1 bacterium per 100 mL per 1kg of granulated complex

Number of bacteria per 100 mL
in initial solution
52 1
44 10
13 100

Schematic Description of Technology